Author Archives: bohunkab

Očkovanie v Indii

Od nášho príchodu do Indie uplynul presne mesiac a pol. Prišli sme rovno do obdobia horúčav, ktoré náš priateľ charakterizoval slovami: “ak sa chceš okúpať v studenej vode, musíš do vane prisypať aj kúsky ľadu…” Sme radi, že žijeme v dobe keď už existuje klimatizácia.

Ella má už štyri mesiace a dva týždne. Jednou z našich výziev bolo dať ju zaočkovať. Už na Slovensku sme si lámali hlavu, ako previezť očkovacie látky do Indie, nakoľko už začala proces očkovania a v Indii boli dostupné iba iné vakcíny. Nakoniec sme zistili, že kvôli dôležitosti udržovania stabilnej teploty vakcín by to bolo priam nemožné. Hneď po príchode do Čandigáru sme si našli doktora s ktorým sme prekonzultovali naše možnosti. Prekvapil nás svojou ústretovosťou. Hneď si na internete vyhľadal Slovensko a náš systém očkovania a doporučil nám špeciálneho distribútora vakcín vyrobených v zahraničí. Šli sme sa tam najprv opatrne pozrieť. Aj keď šlo skôr o maličkú, nie nejakú modernú miestnosť, mali chladničky plné vakcín z rôznych kútov sveta. Problém s vakcínami v Indii je, že ich prepravujú a skladujú rôzni distribútori, nie vždy podľa stanovených inštrukcií, čo sa môže odraziť na ich kvalite.  Modlili sme sa, aby naše vakcíny boli bezpečné. Dali nám ich do igelitovej tašky s ľadom. Neskôr sme ich vybrali a nechali zohriať sa na izbovú teplotu na odporúčanie lekára. Keďže tu musela dosťať Ella tri rôzne vakcíny (namiesto dvoch), tak už pár dní predtým sme boli v napätí, ako bude naša princezná plakať. Lekár bol taký rýchly, že sme si ani nestihli všimnúť kedy jej pichol tretiu injekciu a Ella si poplakala len kratučko. Na vakcíny reagovala len zvýšenou teplotou, ktorá jej klesla hneď ako sme jej dali liek.

Sme veľmi vďační, že všetko prebehlo priam nad naše očakávania. Ella je zdravá, usmievavá a robí nám obrovskú radosť. A už sa vie sama pretočiť na bruško a chvíľu sedieť opretá o rúčky…

Reklamy
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Traja v Indii

V sobotu 2. mája sme pricestovali späť do Indie, tentoraz už v trojici – s naším klbôčkom šťastia. Všetkým ďakujeme za modlitby. Cesta prebehla veľmi dobre. Ella spinkala celý čas v lietadle aj aute, zobudila sa len keď bola hladná. Počas 5 hodinovej cesty z letiska sa v taxíku zobudila len raz, keď sa išiel taxikár najesť – najedla sa teda aj Ella a mamke tým dopriala súkromie pri kojení. Oči otvorila po 18 hodinovej ceste (z Nových Zámkov do Panchkuly) u nás v byte, kde ju prekvapil byt vyhriatý ako horúca sauna. Je tu niečo cez 40C. Ella zatiaľ zvláda pobyt vo svojom novom domove v dobrej nálade, iba krátko po príchode začala usedavo dlhšie plakať. Nevieme s istotou povedať, či plakala kvôli oblečeniu neprimeranému klíme,  alebo z mravcov, ktorých sme jej našli vo vlasoch – počas našej neprítomnosti mravce “spali” v našej manželskej posteli.

My sme si tentoraz pri odchode do Indie poplakali tiež – bol to pre nás zatiaľ najťažší odchod. Naša rodina a blízky nám budú veľmi chýbať. Ďakujeme všetkým, ktorí sa za nás modlili a tiež za rôznu pomoc, keď sme boli na Slovensku. Obzvlášť chceme poďakovať rod. Szabových, že nám požičali auto, bez ktorého si náš pobyt ani nevieme predstaviť. Tiež ďakujeme Pašovi aj Presburgerovcom za pomoc pri odvoze z/na letisko. Keďže sme väčšinu času trávili v Košiciach, sme veľmi vďační vedeniu košickému zboru, ale aj mnohým jednotlivcom, za mnoho preukázanej lásky.

Ellu si už chodia obzerať naši známi ako vidíte na fotke. Prosím modlite sa naďalej za ochranu nášej dcérky. Teraz máme pred sebou ťažkú úlohu-nájsť spoľahlivého pediatra a pokračovať v očkovaniach.

Máme vás radi a už teraz nám veľmi chýbate.

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Obchody v Indii

Pár fotiek z nakupovania v Indii. Hore je foto ako Jojo nakupuje priamo pred našimi dverami. Predavači takto už ráno od šiestej vykrikujú aký tovar predávajú.

Rozličný tovar.

Miestny trh s mäsom. Na začiatku sme sa stali vegetariánmi tak na dva dni…

Skvelé a lacné ovocie.

Doteraz sme neprišli na to čo predávajú v tomto “obchode.” Súdiac podľa pózy obchodníka hlavne že je pohoda… V poslednej dobe tu začali stavať aj moderné obchodné centrá ale zatiaľ iba s oblečním. Obchody s potravinami sa začínajú postupne modernizovať, no ešte majú pred sebou dlhú cestu – česť ojedinelým výnimkam.

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The HIV Problem

Let’s talk about it – we need to.

HIV/AIDS is causing untold human suffering and, in many countries, is reversing decades of developmental progress. Since the late 1970s, more than 23 million people have lost their lives to the disease and by 2010, the cumulative toll is expected to rise to 45 million. After more than 30 years of the earliest-known cases, many people around the world still remain uniformed. In many countries, indigenous traditions and cultures are not conducive to facing up to the taboo surrounding sex and sexuality.  Čítať ďalej

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The Price of Not Knowing

In India, ignorance remains a key challenge in the battle against AIDS

In the battle against AIDS, ignorance remains one of the most crucial challenges, an unstuck cog that will not let the wheel turn smoothly no matter how much we push. Globally, more than 40 per cent of respondents do not understand that AIDS is always fatal. A few months ago, a global study by M·A·C AIDS Fund found that, shockingly, AIDS is still underestimated as a global killer. In India, where rates of HIV are rising, 59% believe that HIV is a curable disease. In a collusion of opinion and fact, this first-ever perception audit also found that 86 per cent of adults in the United States, U.K., France, Russia, China, India, Brazil, Mexico and South Africa believe stigma and shame to be a contributor to the spread of HIV. Seventy-six per cent report lack of access to treatment to be a problem as well.

Some astonishing fallacies about access to treatment seem to be in circulation as well. According to the survey, many people mistakenly believe there is currently a cure for HIV. People also believe treatment is more widely available than it is. According to the study, “nearly half of all respondents believe that most people diagnosed with HIV are receiving treatment, when in fact only one in five people who needed treatment received it in 2006.”

The survey also suggests an continuing stigma surrounding HIV. Nearly half of the people surveyed reported being uncomfortable working with those who are HIV positive, while slightly more than half of the respondents did not want to live in the same home as someone infected with HIV.

Despite public health campaigns and sustained efforts by various non-governmental and non-profit organisations working in the sphere, myths about AIDS are both widespread and persistent. Many are ignorant about how the disease spreads or what can be done to prevent it. A major part of the problem is that personal prejudices have kept the stigma and shame about HIV alive. Also, taboos related to sexuality have kept discussion about AIDS out of the places where they most need to be taking place—the home and the classroom. Cultural taboos forbid speaking to children or teenagers about such matters and health becomes a distant lower priority as compared to “morality”. Disturbingly, sex education is still not part of the curriculum in India’s schools. Of course, culture is an important parameter to keep in mind while communicating. But this should not hinder honesty when it comes to important, potentially life-and-death impacting factors. Besides public awareness campaigns, mainstreaming HIV/AIDS awareness into education is imperative because it will enable us to prevent the next generation from facing the scourge that has devastated so many in this one.

Social mores that prevent women from exercising control or agency in their own lives exacerbates the problem. There are approximately 2.5 million cases of HIV in India, with 60% of these occurring amongst the rural population. Married women of childbearing age are considered to be at high risk of HIV because of their husbands’ pre-marital and extra-marital sexual activity but another recent study revealed that levels of HIV testing amongst pregnant women in rural India are very low, and even women who have symptoms of sexually transmitted infections or tuberculosis are not being referred for HIV voluntary counselling or testing.

Formal institutions have been unable or unwilling to address the problem of ignorance with adequate seriousness. All of this points to the growing responsibility that development workers have—to fill this lacunae and educate people in families and communities about AIDS, as often and as comprehensively as possible.

Sources:

1. Global Study at M·A·C AIDS Fund; Retrieved online from http://www.macaidsfund.org/news/pr_rl_global_study.html
2. ‘How the World Thinks About AIDS’, TIME Magazine; Retrieved online from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1684462,00.html
3. ‘Very low levels of HIV testing amongst women in rural India’, January 28, 2008, Aidsmap News (http://www.aidsmap.com)
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A Dangerous Marriage? Women and HIV/AIDS

The United Nation states that in many parts of the world women are most likely to be exposed to HIV infection in their marriage beds. Women’s fertility and her relationship to her husband are often the source of an Indian woman’s social identity. Besides biological influences, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic in India is inextricably tied to the cultural and social values and economic relationships between men and women and within communities. While social inequalities facilitate its spread in India, the HIV virus, in turn, reflects and reinforces these inequalities.

“There are many social precursors for the rapid spread of HIV in the country, including the inability to talk openly and learn about sex and sexuality, pressures from family to give birth to an heir and an implicit threat to the marriage when a woman is unable to become a mother, the high prevalence and acceptability of domestic violence against women, the moral double standard imposed on men and women, and the lower status of women in general. The pressure to be a mother is so intense that when a woman has to choose between being HIV-seronegative but without children and possible conception with possible HIV infection, she often chooses the latter.” (S.Solomon and A.K.Ganesh, 21)

For a majority of people in India, it is still hard to believe that heterosexual transmission accounts for 80 percent of all infections. Generally speaking – 39 percent of PLWHA (people living with HIV and AIDS) in India are women. Data indicates that 7 of 10 women affected by HIV are from poor rural and poor urban communities. Yet, at least 70 percent of women in rural areas have not heard of the virus. The only sexual contact 75 percent of HIV positive women have had is with their husbands.

Why are women in India more likely to be exposed to HIV infection than men? Let’s look at the major factors:

  1. Male-to-female HIV transmission occurs more easily. Young girls and women are more susceptible to HIV than boys and men. In numbers, it means that they are 2.5 times more likely to be HIV-infected as their male counterparts.
  2. Women are more likely to be sexually exploited. Statistics show that 1 of 3 women around the world is raped, beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. A strong link was established between unwanted sex and marital violence.
  3. Women are generally less educated. According to the International Women’s Health Coalition in India, if HIV and AIDS education is even offered in schools, it is to young people 15 years and older. Yet 42 percent of boys and 69 percent of girls (15-17) are not in school. Even the so-called educated women are not aware of HIV and AIDS. There are myths prevalent about sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as having sex with a ‘virgin’ can cure a man suffering from STD and many believe that certain symptoms of STD such as white discharge is the effect of body heat or overwork and do not go for check-ups.
  4. Women have fewer rights. The general standard of life of Indian women is lower than that of men. Often, a HIV positive woman is subjected to greater levels of hostility and stigma than their male counterparts.
  5. Women have less economic independence. The economic vulnerability of women makes it more likely that they will exchange sex for money or favors and less likely that they will succeed in negotiating protection.
  6. Some traditions are harmful to women. In many rural areas, there are traditional forms of sex work. One such example is the tradition of the devadasi, in which young women are “married” to a temple or deity and then provide sexual services to patrons and priests. In India, 27 percent of male clients of male sex workers are married or living with a female partner.
  7. Men determine sexual behaviour. Indian society praises patriarchy and male sexuality. There is an absence of choice at the individual and systemic levels for women. It is difficult for women to be informed about risk reduction.

Inequalities Abound

Prevention of HIV transmission is hindered by gaps in knowledge and by cultural, legal, and medical factors. In 2004, only an estimated four percent of all pregnant women received HIV counseling and testing, and only about two percent of HIV positive pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis. This tendency is supported by the fact that many deliveries are not attended by medical personnel.

The most common method of contraception in India, particularly in the south, has historically been the sterilisation of women, typically done before they turn 30. In Andhra Pradesh, female sterilisation is used for family planning by 62.9 percent of married women and condoms by only 0.5 percent. Advocating the use of condoms has been viewed as promoting promiscuity. The acceptance, availability, and use of condoms are increasing, but primarily among sex workers and outside of marriage.

Mortality and morbidity data indicate that women in India remain providers rather than receivers of health care. Shalini Bharat of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS), Mumbai, revealed in a 2001 study that while the majority of those who shared their HIV status with their families were looked after by family members, it was largely men who received such care.

Women with HIV are often subjected to various forms of violence and discrimination based on gender. Usually they are those ones considered responsible for a husband’s HIV diagnosis. They are often refused a share of household property, denied access to treatment and care or even physically abused. Deaths due to injury and sexual violence of women with HIV are on the increase. A study by K. Sathiamoorthy and Suniti Solomon showed 48.7 percent of women living with HIV experienced violence in their home.

In the last few years, prevention experts have shifted from looking at the HIV and AIDS epidemic solely as a health issue to focusing on other factors. Focus on social inequalities and empowerment is important in dealing with HIV and AIDS.

Empowerment is the key

Health officials in India recognize the need to frame strategies to address women’s health care, including HIV vulnerabilities, in the context of rights. Generally there is a need to deal with a virus which is more dangerous than HIV. It is the virus which is affecting people’s minds and cultures and makes us look at women as inferior to men.

Besides the importance of safer practices, abstinence and voluntary testing, empowerment of women is essential. There is a need to design policies to empower women in India. Decreasing the gender gap in education, improving women’s access to economic resources, increasing women’s political participation, and protecting women from violence are key.

References:
http://www.yrgcare.org/downloads/HIV_in_India.pdf
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4260314.stm
http://www.breakthrough.tv/teach_detail.asp?TeachId=9
http://www.iwhc.org/resources/hivaidsfactsheet.cfm
http://www.commed.uchc.edu/cichs/research/womensrisk.htm
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/356/11/1089
http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102250393.html
http://www.prb.org/Articles/2003/WithoutMyConsentWomenandHIVRelatedStigmainIndia.aspx
http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/hivaids/Gupta.html
Happonen O. Hannu, Opportunity in crisis. Basic Lessons on HIV and AIDS.
Maria Cimperman, When Gods people have HIV and AIDS. An approach to ethics. New York, 2006
Suniti Solomon, MD, and Aylur Kailasam Ganesh, ACA, Special Contribution – HIV in India. Volume 10 Issue 3 July/August, 2002
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Chránené heslom: Prenasledovanie v Orrise

Obsah je chránený heslom. Pre zobrazenie zadajte vaše heslo:

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Trapas

Trapasy osviežujú každodennú rutinu a väčšinou s odstupom času vyvolajú úsmev na tvári. Moja snaha o inováciu nosenia typických indických nohavíc “čuridas” skončila takým trapasom. Ako vidieť na fotke, tieto nohavice majú dosť nezvyčajný strih a dĺžku. Uväzujú sa vpredu a keďže majú veľmi neprakticky dlhú šnúrku, tak som sa rozhodla, že si to uviažem vzadu. Všetko fungovalo skvele, až kým som nepotrebovala ísť na toaletu. Zatiahla som za nesprávny koniec a šnúrka sa zauzlila…Boli sme v reštaurácii a WC bolo situované na začiatku malej miestnosti, čiže všetci mali prehľad o jeho obsadení. Po chvíli snahy rozviazať si uzol vzadu v páse som sa celá spotená rozhodla zavolať nášho rodinného “mac gajvera”. Jojo sa prv vzpieral, že prečo ho volám na toaletu. Keď ma vyslobodil, vyšli sme víťazoslavne spolu von čeliac upretým pohľadom konzumujúcich zákaznikov. Odvtedy si čuridas zaväzujem zásadne vpredu.

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Záhradkári

William Carey, môj veľký vzor, bol vášnivým záhradkárom. Pre svoje hobby si našiel priestor aj v Indii. Bola to inšpirácia jeho životom, či vynikajúci doma vypestovaný šalát u priateľov alebo nedostatok šalátu na trhu, čo nás priviedlo k tomuto rozhodnutiu? Sám neviem. Jedno je však isté – túto fotku predchádzalo množstvo aktivít, na ktoré by ste na Slovensku ani nepomysleli.

Kúpa kvetináčov nás zamestnala na polovicu dňa. Tu to však iba začalo. Hlinu v Šimle nekúpite v obchode. Potrebovali sme sa najprv spriateliť so susedom, ktorý nám hlinu dal zo záhrady. Potom nasledovala návšteva na stavbu, kde sme dostali trochu piesku. Za tým ešte vystopovanie majiteľa potulujúcej sa kravy po ulici a prosba o kúsok hnoja. Po týchto aktivitách a zmiešaní vymenovaných ingrediencií nasledovalo sadenie. Ako teenager som si pri “nevoľníckych prácach” v našej záhrade mojich rodičov sľuboval, že keď raz budem veľký, záhrada bude to posledné, do čoho investujem svoj čas. Aj tu však platí staré známe príslovie – nikdy nehovor nikdy.

Hodnotiac úspešnú misiu s odstupom jedného týždňa sme došli k záveru, že vďaka takejto zdanlivo jednoduchej aktivite sme mali možnosť spoznať nových ľudí a k tomu ešte získať prvotriedny šalát.

S odstupom jedného mesiaca sme však svoje závery museli poopraviť. Po návrate z mesačnej služobnej cesty z južnej Indii sme našli šalát úplne vysušený. Osoba poverená polievaním tvrdila, že za to nemôže. Nemilé to prekvapenie – dobré to však poučenie. Vzácne veci väčšinou nezískame na prvý krát… Šalátom z reštaurácií a trhov by sa mamičky v Indii mali minimálne v prvom trimestri vyhýbať. A hoci tu ešte nie sme, šalát pestovať môžeme už dnes. Takže na druhý pokus?

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Chandovci majú dcérku

Je to tu!  Vytúžená dcérka Chandovcov je na svete! Zdravá a krásna. Narodila sa 9. apríla o 10.30 ráno. Vážila 3,8 kg. Jej príchod na svet bol aj pre mňa veľmi osobný, pretože som bola pri pôrode. Ako som už písala, Rachel rodila doma. Mala tam dve profesionálne pôrodné sestry. Jedna z nich tam mala svojho dvojtýždňového synčeka! Pôrod dokopy aj so silnými bolesťami trval 30 minút! Keďže sa všetko odohralo tak nečakene rýchle, vidieť to aj na videokazete (mimochodom-jednou z mojich zodpovedností). Prvých pár sekúnd vidieť len strop a nejaké rozmazané postavy.  To aj preto, lebo som musela robiť dve veci naraz -fotografovať a natáčať na video. A pri tej rýchlosti som ani nestihla odpadnúť, tak ako som plánovala…

Každopádne všetci sme radi, že už to máme za sebou. Ďakujeme za modlitby. Malú Annu budete môcť obdivovať už v júli, keď Chandovci navštívia Slovensko.

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